Occupational Safety and Health culture assessment - A review of main approaches and selected tools

Testo tratto da: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/culture_assessment_soar_TEWE11005ENN/view
Fonte: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work

Occupational safety and health culture, or more briefly 'OSH culture', can be seen as a concept for exploring how informal organisational aspects influence OSH in a positive or negative way.
The aim is to convey up-to-date information on this complex topic in a straightforward, condensed way, trying to build a bridge between research and practice. The main approaches and methods that exist to assess the safety culture in an organisation are presented and discussed. This review gives an overview and selection of useful tools and techniques from the EU domain and abroad.

Table of contents
List of figures and tables .........................................................................................................................................2
Acronyms ...................................................................................................................................................................3
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................................5
1. Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................7
2. Taking a cultural approach towards OSH.........................................................................................................9
2.1. Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................9
2.2. The organisational triangle.............................................................................................................................9
2.3. OSH culture......................................................................................................................................................10
2.4. Theoretical backgrounds..............................................................................................................................11
2.4.1. Introduction...................................................................................................................................................11
2.4.2. Safety culture................................................................................................................................................12
2.4.3. Patient safety culture...................................................................................................................................16
2.4.4. Health culture...............................................................................................................................................17
2.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................................19
3. Assessing an organisation's OSH culture....................................................................................................21
3.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................21
3.2. Approaches and assessment strategies.................................................................................................21
3.2.1. Three approaches......................................................................................................................................21
3.2.2. Analytical assessment approach............................................................................................................22
3.2.3. Academic assessment approach...........................................................................................................25
3.2.4. Pragmatic assessment approach..........................................................................................................26
3.2.5. Triangulation...............................................................................................................................................27
3.2.6. Before starting - Pre-assessment considerations..............................................................................28
3.3. Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................29
4. Selection of OSH culture assessment tools................................................................................................31
4.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................31
4.2. Approach..........................................................................................................................................................31
4.2.1. Search strategy............................................................................................................................................32
4.3. A selection........................................................................................................................................................32
4.3.1. Introduction...................................................................................................................................................32
4.3.2. Score Your Safety Culture Checklist........................................................................................................33
4.3.3. Hearts & Minds Programme - Understanding Your Culture Checklist.............................................33
4.3.4. Safety Climate Assessment Toolkit and User Guide (LSCAT)..........................................................35
4.3.5. Safety Health of Maintenance Engineering (SHoMe) Tool.................................................................36
4.3.6. Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ)......................................................38
4.3.7. IAEA Guidance for Use in the Enhancement of Safety Culture.........................................................39
4.4. Overview.........................................................................................................................................................42
5. Overall conclusions.........................................................................................................................................45
5.1. Theoretical framework.................................................................................................................................45
5.1.1. A cultural approach to OSH.....................................................................................................................45
5.1.2. Assessing safety culture.........................................................................................................................45
5.2. From theory to practice...............................................................................................................................46
5.2.1. A selection of assessment methods....................................................................................................46
5.2.2. Practical approach - why and how?......................................................................................................47
5.3. Discussion...................................................................................................................................................48
5.3.1. Occupational safety and health culture?.............................................................................................48
5.3.2. OSH culture in SMEs?............................................................................................................................48
5.3.3. Towards a standard European tool?...................................................................................................48
6. Annexes............................................................................................................................................................51
6.1. Score Your Safety Culture Checklist........................................................................................................51
6.2. Hearts & Minds programme - Understanding Your Culture Checklist..............................................54
6.3. Safety Climate Assessment Toolkit and User Guide (LSCAT)...........................................................58
6.4. Safety Health of Maintenance Engineering (SHoMe) Tool...................................................................61
6.5. Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ)........................................................65
6.6. IAEA Guidance for Use in the Enhancement of Safety Culture...........................................................69
7. References......................................................................................................................................................72
8. Further information.........................................................................................................................................76
8.1. Further reading............................................................................................................................................76
8.2. Web links......................................................................................................................................................77

List of figures and tables
Table 1: The analytic, academic and pragmatic approach towards safety culture.................................21
Table 2: Non-exhaustive list of safety climate questionnaires and toolkits.............................................23
Table 3: Non-exhaustive list of safety culture maturity assessment tools...............................................26
Table 4: Overview of different safety culture assessment instruments....................................................30
Table 5: Different perspectives on safety culture, and relating assessment methods of LSCAT........36
Table 6: Overview of the three questionnaires of the SHoMe Tool............................................................37
Table 7: Matrix with the three stages of safety culture and five characteristics.......................................40
Table 8: Overview table of the selected tools................................................................................................42
Figure 1: The organisational triangle...............................................................................................................9
Figure 2: The organisational triangle and its relation with OSH...............................................................11
Figure 3: Layers of organisational culture....................................................................................................14
Figure 4: Culture-Work-Health model...........................................................................................................18
Figure 5: Effort-benefit correlation..................................................................................................................29
Figure 6: Layers of organisational culture and related assessment instruments...............................29
Figure 7: The HSE Culture Step Ladder.......................................................................................................34
Figure 8: Example of a NOSACQ diagram...................................................................................................39

 

 

 

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