Di certo, come a lungo analizzato, l’employability ricopre un ruolo molto importante nell ‘analisi delle nuove competenze dei lavoratori. Il modello è ricco di dati imprescindibili in un contesto flessibile, tuttavia un’osservazione di fondi e in via conclusiva è d’obbligo.
Le variabili comprese nel DME sono tutte da leggere in un’ottica di sacrificio per il lavoratore e mai costituiscono uno slancio dell’azienda con interventi di tutela e supporto nei suoi confronti.
Elementi come la proattività ad esempio devono esser stimolati dall’azienda con la messa in atto di comportamenti che stimolino le motivazioni individuali.
Le variabili contenute nel DME quindi, sono in gran parte da inquadrare in un’ottica pro aziendale e in nessun caso mostrano uno slancio all’azione da parte della’azienda nei confronti del lavoratore.
I risultati empirici sull’employability lasciano comunque ben sperare, soprattutto in vista di formulazioni future sul tema che sappiano implementare quei limiti che si riscontrano oggi.
Ashforth, B. E., & Fugate, M. (2001). Role transitions and the life-span. In B. E. Ashforth, Role
transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective (pp. 225–257).
Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of
Management Review, 27, 17–40.
Anderson, C. (2001). Survey: The young know the future. The Economist, 357(8202), 6–10.
Ashford, S. J., & Taylor, M. S. (1990). Adaptation to work transitions: An integrative
approach. In G. R. Ferris & K. M. Rowland (Eds.), Research in personnel and human
resources management (Vol. 8, pp. 1–39). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Ashford, S. J., & Taylor, M. S. (1990). Adaptation to work transitions: An integrative approach. In
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance:
A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26.
Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior. Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103–118.
Becker, G. S. (1975). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to
education (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. RtTa
Breese, J. R., & O Toole, R. (1995). Role exit theory: Applications to adult women college
students. Career Development Quarterly, 44, 12–25.6Befc
Bretz, R. D., & Judge, T. A. (1994). Person-organization fit and the Theory of Work Adjustment:
Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behaviour,
Bricuit, J. C., & Bentley, K. J. (2000). Disability status and perceptions of employability by
employers. Social Work Research, 24, 87–99.
Brockner, J., & Chen, Y. (1996). The moderating roles of self-esteem and self-construal in reaction
to a threat to the self: Evidence from the People’s Republic of China and the United
States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 603–615.
Burt, R. S. (1997a). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42,
Burt, R. S. (1997b). A note on social capital and network content. Social Networks, 19, 355–373.
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1994). Situational coping and coping dispositions in a stressful
transaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 184–195.
Connelly, C.E. and Gallagher, D.G. (2006). Independent and dependent contracting: meaning and
implications. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 95–106.
Chan, D. (2000). Understanding adaptation to changes in the work environment: Integrating
Individual difference and learning perspectives. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in
personnel and human resources management (Vol. 18, pp. 1–42). Stamford, CT:
Crant, J. M. (1995). The proactive personality scale and objective job performance among real
estate agents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 532–537.
Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435–462.
conclusions. In De Cuyper, N., Isaksson, K. and De Witte, H. (eds), Employment
Contracts and Well-Being Among European Workers. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 225–244.
Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual review of
psychology (Vol. 41, pp. 417–440). Stanford, CA: Annual Reviews.
Finn, D. (2000). From full employment to employability: A new deal for Britain’s unemployed?
International Journal of Manpower, 21(5), 384–399.
Forbes, J. B., & Piercy, J. E. (1991). Corporate mobility and paths to the top: Studies for human
resource and management development specialists. New York: Quorum.
Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its
dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 14.
Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st
century. In B. M. Staw & R. I. Sutton (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol.
23, pp. 133–187). Amsderdam: Elsevier.
Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Scheck, C. L. (2002). Coping with an organizational merger over four
stages. Personnel Psychology, 55, 905–928.
Gould, S. (1979). Characteristics of career planners in upwardly mobile occupations. Academy of
Management Journal, 22, 539–550.
Hall, D. T. (2002). Careers in and out of organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Judge, T. A., Erez, A., & Bono, J. A. (1998). The power of being positive: The relation between
positive self-concept and job performance. Human Performance, 11, 167–187.
Kanfer, R., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Motivation skills and traits: A person-centered approach to
work motivation. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 19, 1–56.
Klandermans B.(1999). Job Insecurity: Introduction, european journal of work and organizational
psychology, 1999, 8 (2), 145–153
Kluytmans F, Ott M. (1999) Management of Employability in The Netherlands,
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1999, 8 (2), 261–272
Kossek, E. E., Huber, M. S. Q., & Lemer, J. V. (2003). Sustaining work force inclusion and well
being of mothers on public assistance: Individual deficit and social ecology perspectives.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 155–175.
La Rosa (2002). Sociologia del Lavoro. Il Mulino. Bologna
London, M., & Smither, J. W. (1999). Career-related continuous learning: Defining the construct
And mapping the process. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in human resources management
(Vol.17, pp. 81–121). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.
Gaspersz, J.B.R., & Ott, E.M. (1996). Management van employability. Assen, The Netherlands:
Van Gorcum/Stichting Management Studies (SMS).
Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1995). The new career contract: Developing the whole person at
midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 269–289.
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Pucik, V., & Welbourne, T. M. (1999). Managerial coping with
organizational change: A dispositional perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84,
McArdle S, Waters L.,Briscoe J., Douglas T. (2007). Employability during unemployment:
Adaptability, career identity and human and social capital Journal of Vocational Behavior
71 (2007) 247–264
Kanter, R. (1989). The new managerial work. Harvard Business Review, November/
December, 85–92. Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work:
Extra-role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42,
Ott, M. , Management of Employability in The Netherlands.European Journal of Work and
Organizational Psychology, 1999, 8 (2), 261–272
Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. In J. Hagan & K.
S.Cook (Eds.), Annual Review of Sociology (Vol. 24, pp. 1–24). Palo Alto, CA: Annual
Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44–55.
Rotter, J. B., 1966. Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.
Psychological Monographs 80 (Whole No. 609). Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996).
Proactive socialization and behavioral self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
Sarchielli G. (2003) Psicologia del Lavoro. Il Mulino. Bologna
Spector, P. E. (1988). Development of the work locus of control scale. Journal of Occupational
Psychology, 61, 335–340.
Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and
present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 234–279.
Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 416–427.
Seibert, S. E., & Kraimer, M. L. (2001). The five-factor model of personality and career success.
Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 58, 1–21.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal
model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845
Stokes, S. L. (1996). Managing your I.S. career: Coping with change at the top. Information
Systems Management, 13(1), 76–78.
Tharenou, P. (1997). Explanations of managerial career advancement. Australian Psychologist, 32,
Thoresen, C. J., Bradley, J. C., Bliese, P. D., & Thoresen, J. D. (2004). The big five personality
traits and individual job performance growth trajectories in maintenance and transitional
job stages. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 835–853.
Wanberg, C. R., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the
socialization process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 373–385.
Wanberg, C. R., Watt, J. D., & Rumsey, D. J. (1996). Individuals without jobs: An empirical study
of jobseeking behavior and reemployment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 76–87.
Lavoro flessibile e job insecurity: l’incertezza lavorativa avanza alla luce di un fenomeno eterogeneo – © Dr. Pierluigi Lido