Passaggio generazionale in azienda

Passaggio generazionale in azienda

Foto di Daniela Dimitrova da Pixabay

 

Passare il testimone in ambito aziendale può spesso essere un momento critico sia per il predecessore che per il successore, in particolare quando ciò avviene all’interno del nucleo familiare, ad esempio quando l’erede è un figlio o un nipote.

Il fatto che le persone appartengano a due diverse generazioni implica il provenire da contesti socioculturali differenti, la cui integrazione non è sempre così semplice, addirittura le statistiche rivelano che solo il 30% delle Piccole e Medie Imprese riesce a superare con successo il passaggio, mentre per la restante parte sono proprio le criticità associate al passaggio generazionale a rappresentare la prima causa di fallimento.

Questi dati rendono bene l’idea di quanto sia importante non sottovalutare questa fase, ed anzi prepararsi con anticipo ad affrontarla, poiché l’oggetto del passaggio non ha a che fare solamente con aspetti economici e patrimoniali, ma riguarda anche tradizioni, conoscenze e competenze maturate con impegno nel corso degli anni.

Tra le fonti di stress da fronteggiare vi è anche la preoccupazione per il futuro dei lavoratori che dipendono dall’azienda, perciò si raccomanda di agire preventivamente al fine di tenere sotto controllo le potenziali criticità lavorando in particolare sugli aspetti di natura relazionale.

Le relazioni familiari infatti, sia a livello affettivo che professionale, assumono un ruolo fondamentale nel determinare l’esito della successione, perciò è importante non trascurare il problema ma piuttosto cercare di definire in anticipo un piano pluriennale da poter condividere con i familiari ed in generale con tutti gli stakeholders.

La condivisione del piano è funzionale anche ad una sua eventuale modifica sulla base dei feedback ricevuti, nonché alla gestione di possibili resistenze alla successione. La pianificazione anticipata del processo serve inoltre a favorire una graduale assunzione delle nuove responsabilità da parte del successore, che così può avere tempo di assimilare i nuovi compiti associati al proprio ruolo.

Tra le difficoltà fronteggiate dalla famiglia vi è ad esempio quella che riguarda la capacità di mantenere separati i ruoli familiari da quelli aziendali, a cui si aggiungono problematiche associate al senso di fiducia. Visto il ruolo importante giocato dalle dinamiche relazionali ed emotive, è consigliabile coinvolgere soggetti esterni garanti di una maggiore obiettività e, in particolare, fare riferimento ad una forma di consulenza psicologica che supporti il processo con attenzione proprio a quelli che sono gli aspetti più delicati.

 

© Passaggio generazionale in azienda – Martina Mancinelli

Smart Working

 

Smart Working: siamo o non siamo pronti a correre il rischio ?

 

Secondo la ricerca in Italia si contano oggi 480mila smart worker, il 12,6% degli occupati che potrebbero essere interessati da questa tipologia lavorativa (smart working): numeri in aumento del 20% rispetto al 2017 e con ampi spazi di crescita, ma percentuali ancora al ribasso rispetto alla media dei paesi a più alto sviluppo industriale.

Gran parte delle previsioni non sembrerebbe lasciare dubbi sulla direzione e l’intensità del cambiamento: per citare una sola tra le tante fonti che concordano sul trend in atto, secondo il Rapporto Future of Jobs presentato a Gennaio 2016 a Davos al World Economic Forum2, nel 2020 la metà delle persone lavoreranno da casa o comunque non in azienda (Massimo Neri, 2017). Numeri alla mano, però, la distanza da questa stima ipotetica è ad oggi considerevole in Italia dove manca quell’accettazione condivisa di un fenomeno ancora in grado di muovere scetticismo specialmente nelle PMI e nella PA. Non si può negare che ci siano alcune difficoltà nell’implementazione di un progetto di smart working. Da un punto di vista pratico, innanzitutto, occorre essere in possesso o fornire gli smart worker di una strumentazione adeguata per lo svolgimento del lavoro da sede remota (server, software, laptop, tablet).

Sullo stesso livello una formazione adeguata al personale si presenta come conditio sine qua non. La formazione dovrà riguardare sia aspetti concreti che temi quali la pianificazione del lavoro, la gestione degli imprevisti e il problem solving, fino ad arrivare alla comunicazione con gli stakeholder in assenza o in presenza di criticità. Tra le questioni più delicate troviamo l’allineamento della cultura aziendale alle pratiche di smart working per quanto riguarda la definizione del monte ore, il monitoraggio delle attività e il processo di feedback.

Occorre ci sia coerenza tra la somministrazione delle pratiche di lavoro agile e la consueta gestione del personale in azienda seguendo quelle che sono la cultura e i valori organizzativi tipici.

Un ultimo rischio connesso al lavoro agile è legato a fattori personali e di contesto quali la tendenza a procrastinare (Zappalà, 2017), il senso di responsabilità personale, le aspettative di familiari e amici sapendo che la persona lavora da casa e il riuscire a creare un ambiente che minimizzi le distrazioni. In questo senso risulta fondamentale selezionare le persone più adatte a svolgere lavoro a distanza, in grado di elargire quantomeno lo stesso livello di performance di quello abituale. Per alcune persone, però, “l’investitura” potrebbe sortire un effetto responsabilizzante spingendo la persona ad offrire un livello di performance superiore a quello abituale.

Charles Darwin sosteneva che “non è la specie più forte o la più intelligente a sopravvivere ma quella che si adatta meglio al cambiamento”. Nonostante gli ostacoli sopra citati è impossibile non notare come la concezione tradizionale del lavoro stia andando incontro ad una netta evoluzione he impone un allineamento al cambiamento per incrementare il proprio business.

Di fronte ad una competizione sempre più sfrenata sono i dettagli a fare la differenza e lo smart working rappresenta un fenomeno in grado di apportare innumerevoli benefici. Utilizzando le evidenze raccolte dall’Osservatorio del Politecnico di Milano attraverso questionari e casi pilota, si può stimare l’incremento di produttività per un lavoratore derivante dall’adozione di un modello “maturo” di Smart Working nell’ordine del 15%.

Volendo proiettare l’impatto a livello di sistema Paese i lavoratori che potrebbero fare Smart Working sono almeno 5 milioni tanto che l’effetto dell’incremento della produttività media in Italia si può stimare intorno ai 13,7 miliardi di euro (https://blog.osservatori.net).

Volgendo uno sguardo alle giovani generazioni un interessante studio dimostra come se si parla di remunerazione, per il 52% dei millennial italiani benefits e lavoro agile contano di più di uno stipendio corposo. In particolare, rinuncerebbero fino a 3mila euro all’anno (250 euro al mese), a fronte della possibilità di essere inclusi in programmi di smart working(Repubblica.it). Questo a dimostrazione di come lo smart working rappresenti un’importante leva motivazionale nell’attrarre talenti, con una forte influenza sul versante femminile. Grazie al lavoro agile le donne sarebbe in grado di adempiere più agevolmente alle note responsabilità famigliari nella cura di casa e bambini. In primo luogo, infatti, il lavoro agile permette una migliore conciliazione lavoro-famiglia (sfera personale) con la possibilità di lavorare da casa (e non solo) occupandosi di figli e svolgendo quei servizi che la routine quotidiana non ti permettere di fare.

Dal lato HR il lavoro agile garantisce una drastica diminuzione dei tassi di turnover e assenteismo da anni considerati come i principali indicatori di insoddisfazione lavorativa. Questo fenomeno, infatti, agisce sulle dimensione dell’autonomia e della flessibilità permettendo all’individuo di gestire deliberatamente modalità e luogo di lavoro.

Un effetto positivo lo si ha anche sulla strategia di employer branding con un riflesso sulla reputazione aziendale: attraverso lo smart working l’organizzazione compie un passo in avanti verso i bisogni profondi del capitale umano. Un ulteriore aspetto positivo riguarda l’impatto ambientale: secondo un recente studio, infatti, un solo giorno di remote working alla settimana diminuisce la produzione di anidride carbonica nell’aria nell’ordine di 135 kg ogni 12 mesi. Parallelamente si ha un grande risparmio in termini di tempo nell’ordine di circa 60 minuti per ogni giornata di lavoro da remoto e un risparmio da parte dell’organizzazione dei costi di gestione tipici del lavoro in sede.

Analizzando gli indici di gradimento, l’indagine della School of Management del Politecnico certifica la piena soddisfazione degli smart worker: il 50% è pienamente soddisfatto delle modalità di organizzare il proprio lavoro, contro il 22% dei dipendenti “tradizionali”, il 34% ha un buon rapporto con i colleghi e con i propri superiori, un dato più che doppio rispetto ai dipendenti “tradizionali”. Ulteriori riscontri positivi arrivano dalle numerose realtà organizzative che hanno scelto dapprima di sperimentare la procedura per poi renderla stabile a seguito dei risultati. In questo senso noti sono i casi di Tim, Enel, Ferrovie dello stato, Tetrapak, Provincia autonoma di Trento per citarne alcuni.

Di fronte a queste evidenze sceglieremo di sottometterci alla paura o di aprirci ad un cambiamento tanto evidente quanto ricco di speranza?

Bibliografia

 

© Smart Working – Andrea Pivetti

 

Impresa 4.0: lo Smart Working

Impresa 4.0: lo Smart Working

 

Nell’ultimo ventennio si è legittimata quella che può essere chiamata “rivoluzione digitale”, promuovendo profondi cambiamenti nel modo di lavorare grazie all’avvento di strumenti informatici e alla diffusione di Internet nella vita delle persone. In parallelo si è assistito ad uno sviluppo delle pratica HR con un focus rivolto sempre di più alla persona e ai suoi bisogni all’interno dell’ambiente lavorativo. Questo perché la crisi economica ha richiesto una riflessione obbligata intorno al tema della competitività, della produttività, della capacità d’innovazione delle organizzazioni ?. In questo rinnovato scenario socio-culturale ha iniziato a diffondersi il cosiddetto Smart Working o lavoro agile regolamentato in Italia dalla legge n.81/2017 all’interno del Disegno di legge sul lavoro autonomo (AC.N. 2233B). Esso può essere definito come ‘una modalità di esecuzione del rapporto di lavoro subordinato caratterizzato dall’assenza di vincoli orari o spaziali un’organizzazione per fasi, cicli e obiettivi, stabilita mediante accordo tra dipendente e datore di lavoro; una modalità che aiuta il lavoratore a conciliare i tempi di vita e lavoro e, al contempo, favorire la crescita della sua produttività’². Il dipendente in questo modo alterna le proprie attività tra azienda e fuori da essa, con prevalenza della prestazione in sede.

Facendo un passo indietro, l’origine va ritrovata negli anni ’70 in USA con la diffusione del telelavoro in cui si è assistito al primo punto di rottura con il sistema di lavoro tayloristico che prevedeva una parcellizzazione delle mansioni svolte unicamente all’interno dell’azienda con ritmi routinari e assenza di flessibilità. Per la prima volta si è autorizzato ai dipendenti di svolgere le proprie mansioni in un luogo differente dall’azienda di riferimento. Invariati rimanevano compiti e orario di lavoro e il dipendente era tenuto a dichiarare al proprio responsabile il luogo in cui intendeva svolgere la propria prestazione per permettergli di esercitare un controllo a distanza. Il telelavoro, però, non ha ottenuto i risultati sperati registrando poche adesioni da parte delle organizzazioni in un momento storico dove non c’era ancora l’apertura culturale necessaria. Per questo motivo si è assistito ad una sua evoluzione nel moderno Smart Working. La prima diffusione è avvenuta in USA e in Europa i primi stati che hanno iniziato a farne uso sono stati Olanda ed Inghilterra.

Lo Smart Working presenta due differenze sostanziali dal telelavoro:

1- Il lavoratore può decidere di lavorare in qualsiasi luogo a suo piacimento senza l’obbligo di comunicarlo

2- Il dipendente lavora per progetti per il cui raggiungimento agisce in maniera autonoma proponendo soluzioni creative. Nei giorni in cui non si reca in azienda, quindi, svolge compiti differenti da quelli consueti.

Nel lavoro agile il dipendente viene valutato in base ai risultati godendo di flessibilità e autonomia, aspetti ritenuti fondamentali per la soddisfazione personale e la conseguente performance organizzativa.

I lavoratori Smart Worker godono degli stessi diritti degli altri dipendenti in materia di assicurazione contro infortuni e malattie professionali, diritto alla formazione e retribuzione. Il lavoro agile può essere applicato a diverse tipologie contrattuali: dal part time al contratto a termine, dal contratto di somministrazione all’impiego nelle pubbliche amministrazioni³. Gli accordi di Smart Working (orario di lavoro) devono essere comunicati dal responsabile d’azienda al ministero del lavoro, nel rispetto del monte ore settimanale previsto dalla legge. La modalità di somministrazione è a discrezione dell’azienda come si può notare in organizzazioni differenti (es. 2gg/sett. Zurich, 8 gg/mese Intesa Sanpaolo, 32ore/mese Barilla).

Dati

In Italia aumenta lo Smart Working, sono 305 mila i lavoratori agili in crescita (2017) del 14% rispetto al 2016 (e del 60% rispetto al 2013) e sono 13,7 i miliardi di Euro di possibili benefici per il Paese. Il 36% delle grandi imprese ha già progetti strutturati di Smart Working (il 30% li ha lanciati nel 2016), ben una su due ha avviato o sta per avviare un progetto, ma le iniziative che hanno portato veramente a un ripensamento complessivo dell’organizzazione del lavoro sono ancora limitate e riguardano circa il 9% delle grandi aziende, il 7% delle piccole e medie imprese e solo il 5% delle pubbliche amministrazioni ha progetti strutturati e un altro 4% pratica lo Smart Working informalmente, ma a fronte di una limita applicazione c’è un notevole fermento, con il 48% che ritiene l’approccio interessante, un ulteriore 8% che ha già pianificato iniziative per il prossimo anno e solo il 12% che si dichiara non interessato. Gli Smart Worker sono complessivamente l’8%. Sono alcuni dei risultati dell’Osservatorio Smart Working 2017 del Politecnico di Milano ?. Le analisi statistiche dimostrano come ci sia un forte incremento di progetti Smart Working in Italia, con prevalenza in realtà multinazionali, ma una cultura sul lavoro non ancora aperta completamente ad una svolta definitiva. Questo per lo meno rispetto ad altri paesi, su tutti gli stati del nord Europa (la Norvegia fa registrare il picco più alto), dove le pratiche di lavoro agile sono da anni parte integrante del sistema socio-economico nazionale.

Vi rimandiamo al prossimo articolo dove si esporranno i pro e i contro (realisticamente pochi) del fenomeno in questione.

 

© Impresa 4.0: lo Smart Working – Andrea Pivetti

 

Bibliografia

[1]  www.lavoro.gov.it (ministero del lavoro).

²  Chiaro, G., Prati, G., Zocca, M. (2015). Smart working: dal lavoro flessibile al lavoro agile, Sociologia del lavoro, n. 138, 69-87.

³  www.laleggepertutti.it

www.corriere.it (corriere della sera)

 

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Discussion and conclusion

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Discussion, Limitations and Conclusion

The general arguments made in the introduction about the mediating role of intrinsic motivation were mostly supported here. It can be registered that intrinsic motivation partially mediates the relation between supervisor developmental feedback and innovative behavior. Being recognized as a very important factor, supervisor developmental feedback showed 18.5 % of total variance influencing  innovative behavior and 8% of total variance influencing intrinsic motivation.

Consequently, by providing developmental feedback supervisors appear to accomplish an important role in increasing both employees’ intrinsic motivation and innovative behavior. Two variables together explained 34.8 % of total variance in influencing innovative behavior. This small percentage  represents a kind of limitation of the study. It shows that there are other variables that can explain this relation by 65.2 % of total variance. This can be explained from different viewpoints: First, it could be attributed to the short scale measuring the supervisor developmental feedback (3 items). Moreover, one reversed item showed slightly higher alpha Cronbach (.923) and had no loading on any indicator in factor analysis.         

The expectations about the mediating role of intrinsic motivation between creative self-efficacy and innovative behavior have also been supported.

Multiple regression model demonstrated the insignificance of self-efficacy in the prediction of innovative behavior. Due to high correlation with creative self-efficacy, the regression caused the exclusion of the variable that in simple linear regression showed weaker predictive power on the outcome variable than the other variable. In this case it was creative self-efficacy.

To make clearer this kind of interpretation it’s worth noting once again that a variable is said to function as a mediator when variations in the independent variables significantly account for variations in the proposed mediator, variations in the mediator significantly account for variations in the dependent variable, and, when controlling for the mediator, a previously significant relationship between the independent variable(s) and the dependent variable decreases or becomes insignificant (see Barron and Kenny, 1986).

Nevertheless, creative self-efficacy in the simple linear regression model showed a high level of influence on intrinsic motivation: It appeared to be very strong source in that influence (50.5%), while innovative behavior was again in strong correlation with intrinsic motivation, showing .52.  Thus, it can be concluded that creative self-efficacy is a quite powerful source for boosting an individual’s initiative to behave innovatively.

The suggested hypothesis, with its statistical analysis, apparently broadens the path through which the innovative behavior can be pursued in organizational settings. Theoretically, it stems directly from the self efficacy theory and the assumptions suggested by the above mentioned researchers about motivation role in creativity. The proved hypothesis suggests that supervisors take into account employee’s intrinsic motivation as a necessary tool in getting them to generate new ideas and behave differently. Both of hypotheses are proved to become a reliable guide for employees to pursue the task and to be consistent in the attempts to behave innovatively.

The correlation of intrinsic motivation with two different level variables showed that with organizational level variable (supervisor developmental feedback) it is weaker, (.28), than with individual level variable (creative self-efficacy, .71). This difference was reflected in regression process where intrinsic motivation turned out to  gain a real mediating role, while self-efficacy, being an individual level variable,  was in strong correlation with intrinsic motivation and appeared to be expressed through it.

Thus, statistically, it can be concluded that one individual level variable cannot take a mediating role for another individual variable.

Though almost all of the scales showed high validity and reliability, in the future it would be better to improve them, specifically, the scale of supervisor developmental feedback. It had only 3 items, thus restricting the chance to measure the given construct.  By improving the scales, it will be possible to test the models on larger samples and use them as useful models for implementing.

Nevertheless, the analysis of the data warranted the assumptions made previously and undoubtedly proved the way for boosting the employee’s innovative behavior within the organization.  As Sternberg suggested (1999, p. 383), though innovation stems from individual talent and creativity, it is the organizational context that mediates this individual potential and channels it into creative production. 

It can be stated also that this study joins Amabile et al. (1986) in demonstrating the importance of leadership style in an applied setting.

Thus becoming clear that one fundamental antecedent to employee creativity is supervisor’s feedback on employees’ work.

The extension of Amabile’s componental model motivation was one of six required resources.  The data supported also Woodman and Schoenfeldt’s (1989,

1990) interactionist model of creative behavior, which acknowledged intrinsic motivation as a component of the individual that is conductive to creative accomplishment (Sterberg, 1999).

To interpret the data analysis on the basis of the sample, it should be noted that enterprises had different departments and activities, such as that of mechanics and electricians, and there was production of different types, including textile and services. They proved to have realized innovations, and in that process the role of supervisors was significant. In addition, they proved also to behave innovatively by exercising their motivation and self – efficacy. 

Referring to Kanter (1986), we infer also that product innovations must have been more likelyin new organizations, and process innovations in established organizations. She notes that the innovation process is uncertain and unpredictable, that it is knowledge intensive, controversial, and that it crosses boundaries. Thus, innovation is seen as being most likely to flourish under conditions of flexibility, quick action and intensive care, coalition formation and connectedness. He states that innovation is most likely in organizations that

(a) have integrative structures,

(b) emphasize diversity,

(c) have multiple structural linkages inside and outside the organization,

(d) have collective pride and faith in people’s talents, and

(f) emphasize collaboration and teamwork.

Organizations producing innovation have ‘’more complex structures that link people in multiple ways and encourage them to do what needs to be done within strategically guided limits, rather than confining themselves to the letter of their job’’ (Kanter, 1988, p.172).

He argues that that the generation of new ideas that activates innovation is facilitated by organizational complexity: diversity and breadth of experience, including experts who have a great deal of contact with experts in other fields; links to users; and outsiders, openness to the environment; and integration across fields via intersecting territories, multiple communication links, and smaller interdisciplinary business units. Conversely, isolation, or what can be termed ‘’segmentalism’’ (Kanter, 1983), inhibits this critical first phrase of innovation.

Innovation flourishes where ‘’communication integration’’ is high (Rogers & Shoemaker, 1971). Open communication patterns make it easier to identify and contact potential coalition members and to tap their expertise.

Examples of ‘’open communication’’ systems from innovating companies stress access across segments.

‘’Open door’’ policies mean that all levels can, theoretically, have access to anyone to ask questions, even to criticize.   Such open communication norms acknowledge the extent of interdependence – that people in all areas need information from each other. (Kanter, 1988). 

Structural and social conditions within the innovation team also make a difference in success. Because ‘’interactive learning’’ (Quinn, 1985) is so critical to innovation, innovation projects are particularly vulnerable to turnover. Continuity of personnel, up to some limits (Katz, 1982), is an innovation –supporting condition. One of general sources of expectations for innovation lies in whether the organization’s culture pushes ‘’tradition’’ or ‘’change’’. Innovators and innovative organization’s culture pushes ‘’tradition’’ or ‘’change’’.  Innovators and innovative organizations generally come from the most modern ‘’up to date’’ areas rather than traditional ones with preservationist tendencies , and they are generally the higher prestige ‘’opinion leaders’’ that other seek to emulate (Rogers & Shoemaker, 1971; Hage & Dewar, 1973).

But opinion leaders are innovative only if their organizations norms favor change, this is why the values of the leaders are so important. Most people seek to be culturally appropriate, even the people leading the pack. There are thus more impetus to seek change when this is considered desirable by the company.      

In light of the above mentioned arguments, the other limitation of the study turns out to be the lack of any research in those companies regarding whether they showed openness to change and whether they invested in specific resources for the particular innovation.

In addition, the interests, communication and coalition channels make up important preconditions of organizational innovation. The lack of the data on those factors doesn’t permit us to draw conclusions on what level and what kinds of innovations have been made within the given department. For example, did they belong to ‘’traditional ones’’ or emulated ‘’opinion leaders ’’?  In addition, we cannot determine, in general, what kinds of strategies and culture the company’ leaders elaborate to establish an innovative organization.

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Siegel,S.,M. & Kaemmerer, W., F. (1978). Measuring the perceived support for innovation in  organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 5, 553-562.

Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1996). Investing in creativity. American Psychologist, 51, 677–688.

Sterberg R.J. (1999). Handbook of creativity. (pp.301; 383). Cambridge University Press.        

Stoker, J.I.; Looise J.C.; Fischer & Jong, R.D., (2001). Human Resourse Management. 12,7, 1141-1151.

Turney, P., Farmer, M. S. & Graen B. G. (1999).  An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel   Psychology, 52. 

West, M.A. (1989). Innovation among health care professionals. Social Behavior, 4.

West, A. M. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: Integrative model of creativity and  Innovation Implementation in Work Groups.   An international Review, 51, 3, 355- 424.       

West, M.A. & Farr, J.L. (1990) Innovation and creativity at work.  West Sussex PO 19 1UD, England.

Woodman, R.W., Sawyer, J.E. and Griffin, R.W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 293–321.

Woodman, R.W. & Schoenfeldt, L.F. (1990). An interactionist model of creative behavior. Journal of Creative Behavior, 24. 

Yukl, G. (2001) Leadership in organizations. Prentice Hall.

Zhou J. (2003) When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: Role of

supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality,

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 3, 413- 422.

                                       

 

 

© Leadership, Creativity & Innovation in Enterprises – Dott.ssa Nune Margaryan

 

 

 

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: RESULTS

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: RESULTS

Table 1 displays means, standard deviations, and inter correlations among all study variables.

Table  1.

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY.

According to Bartlett’s test, the matrix is not an identity matrix. The null hypothesis is rejected. The variables under analysis are correlated, thus factor analysis is justified. The Cumulative percentage is 61. 139. Four factors explain 61.139% of common variance.


Besides the reversed item of supervisor developmental feedback, all of the variables had values higher than 0.4. It had no loading on any factor that made weaker the correspondence between the structure of a set of indicators and the construct it measures.

RELIABILITY

Alpha Cronbachs for almost all of the measures were higher than .70. Removal of any item or set of items in any measure did not appreciably improve estimates of internal consistency. So, all the variables used in the research were internally consistent.  Separately measured they registered high alpha coefficients.

In the table below the alpha coefficients are presented for all of the variables.

A reversed item, supervisor developmental feedback, turned out to have slightly higher value than Alpha coefficient.  Nevertheless, a review of all of the scales together reveals that a high reliability was registered (.913).

GUIDE FOR TESTING THE METIATION EFFECTS IN MULTIPLE REGRESSION

To test the mediating effect, multiple regression analysis was run to analyze the relationship among all of the variables by first regressing the dependent variable on the independent variable, then regressing the mediator on the independent   variable, and finally regressing the dependent on both the independent variable and the mediator variable ( Baron & Kenny, 1986).

According to the authors (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Judd & Kenny, 1981) there are four steps  in establishing that a variable (intrinsic motivation) mediates the relation between a predictor variable and the outcome variable :  by first step is shown that there is a significant relation between the predictor and outcome. The second step is to show that the predictor is related to the mediator. Third step is to show that the mediator (intrinsic motivation) is related to the outcome variable (innovative behavior). The final step is to show that the strengths of the relation between the predictor and the outcome is significantly reduced when the mediator is added to the model.

Hypothesis 1: Supervisor developmental feedback is positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Table 1

Table 1 provides the results of analysis to test the meditational hypothesis. The unstandardized regression coefficient (.40) related to the effect of supervisor developmental feedback was significant. (p<.0001). Thus, the supervisor developmental feedback and the requirement for the mediation in step 1 was met.

As mentioned above mediator variable (intrinsic motivation) on predictor variable (supervisor developmental feedback) was regressed in step 2.

The unstandardized regression coefficient (B=.23) related with this relation also was significant at the p<.0001 level. Thus the condition for step 2was supported, supervisor developmental feedback was again significant.

Further, to test whether mediator variable (intrinsic motivation) was related to outcome variable (innovative behavior) we regressed the latter simultaneously on both (mediator) intrinsic motivation and predictor (supervisor developmental feedback).  The coefficient concerning the relation between intrinsic motivation and supervisor developmental feedback also was significant. (B= .28, p<.0001).  Thus, the condition for step 3 was again supported. (supervisor developmental feedback was significant).

This third regression equation also provided an estimate of the relation between predictor and outcome variable. If B equals zero in that relation, there is complete mediation. However, that path was .48 and still significant (p<.0001).

It means that the relationship between the predictor (supervisor developmental feedback) and the outcome variable (innovative behavior) is partially mediated by intrinsic motivation (B is greater than zero). Consequently, the relationship between predictor and outcome variables is significantly smaller.

To summarize, the analysis showed that intrinsic motivation has a mediating role between the independent (supervisor developmental feedback) and dependent variable (innovative behavior).

It has weak correlation with supervisor developmental feedback (.28), thus could maintain its mediating role in that relation. At the same time, supervisor developmental feedback and intrinsic motivation both registered good correlation coefficients with innovative behavior: .43 and .52 respectively.

Hypothesis 2:  Creative self-efficacy will be positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation

Table 2

Table 2 provides the results of analysis:

The unstandardized regression coefficient (B=.41) associated with the effect of creative self-efficacy was significant (p<.0001). Thus, creative self efficacy was significant and the requirement for the mediation in step 1 was met.

In the regression of the mediator (intrinsic motivation) on predictor (creative self-efficacy) in step 2 the unstandardized regression coefficient (B = .68) was also significant at the p<.0001 level, thus, the condition for step 2was met, creative self-efficacy was significant.

By regressing innovative behavior simultaneously on both mediator (intrinsic motivation) and the predictor (creative self-efficacy) we tasted whether intrinsic motivation was related to innovative behavior.  The regression coefficient associated with relation between intrinsic motivation and innovative behavior was significant (B=.57, p<.000 ) Thus, the condition for the step 3 was significant. However in the third step creative self-efficacy was insignificant (B=.02; p = .827 >.05).

Due to high correlation with intrinsic motivation (.711), creative self-efficacy got excluded from the model, since regression allows the variables that are in weak correlation with each other and have strong predictive power on the outcome variable.

In this case regression made insignificant the variable that had less (.37) predictive power on innovative behavior than the other variable, intrinsic motivation (.52).   The strong power of self-efficacy is expressed by the high correlation with intrinsic motivation that, in its turn, shows high predictive value on outcome variable: innovative behavior.

© Leadership, Creativity & Innovation in Enterprises – Dott.ssa Nune Margaryan

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis

Fonte: Studio Castello Borgia

 

SWOT ANALYSIS

La Swot Analysis o analisi SWOT (conosciuta anche come matrice SWOT), utilizzata nella gestione e nella formulazione di una strategia, è uno strumento di pianificazione strategica usato per valutare i punti di forza (Strengths), di debolezza (Weaknesses), le opportunità (Opportunities) e le minacce (Threats) di un progetto o in un’impresa o in ogni altra situazione in cui un’organizzazione, un ente, un team o un individuo debba prendere delle decisioni per il raggiungimento di un obiettivo.

L’analisi può riguardare l’ambiente interno (analizzando punti di forza e debolezza) o esterno di un’organizzazione (analizzando minacce ed opportunità).

Fattori interni ed esterni

I quattro punti dell’analisi SWOT (forze, debolezze, opportunità e minacce) provengono da un’unica catena di valori intrinseci alla società e possono essere raggruppati in due categorie:

    • Fattori interni: sono i punti di forza e di debolezza interni dell’organizzazione.
    • Fattori esterni: sono le opportunità e le minacce presenti all’esterno dell’organizzazione.

I fattori interni possono essere visti come punti di forza o di debolezza a seconda del loro impatto sull’organizzazione dei suoi obiettivi. Ciò che può rappresentare un punto di forza rispetto a un obiettivo può essere di debolezza per un altro obiettivo. Possono comprendere il personale, la finanza, le capacità di produzione, attività, abilità, o risorse che un’azienda ha a sua disposizione, paragonate a quelle dei suoi concorrenti. Possono essere misurati usando valutazioni interne o benchmarking esterni.

I fattori esterni emergono dalle dinamiche competitive del settore/mercato o da fattori demografici, economici, politici, tecnici, sociali, legali o culturali e possono quindi includere le questioni macroeconomiche, il mutamento tecnologico, la legislazione, e cambiamenti socio-culturali, così come i cambiamenti nel mercato e posizione competitiva.

Fasi dell’analisi SWOT

 

Continua a leggere l’articolo

 

© La SWOT AnalysisDott. Andrea Castello – Dott.ssa Borgia Irene

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: MEASURES

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: MEASURES

Supervisor developmental feedback:  Consistent with prior research (see Zhou, 2002), we used a 3-item scale to measure the supervisor developmental feedback (e.g., when my supervisor gives me feedback, it helps me to learn and improve my job performance; Cronbach a – .64).

For measuring self-efficacy, along the lines of Tierney and Farmer (2002), we have proposed four types of questions (e.g., I consider that I’m good at developing and presenting new ideas)  regarding employees’ self-efficacy beliefs about their activities (Cronbach a = .85).  For measuring intrinsic motivation, a 5-item scale as posited by Tierney, Farmer, and Graen, (1999) was used (e.g., I like to find solutions for complex problems; Cronbach a – .86).

On innovative behavior, we have proposed seven self-reported questions (e.g., we try to find new technologies, products, services and new methods for conducting the work; see Tierney, Farmer, & Graen, 1999) about employees’ innovative behavior (Cronbach a – .92).   A Likert-type scale ranging from 1, strongly disagree, to 7, strongly agree, was used to define the answers.

RESULTS

Table 1 displays means, standard deviations, and inter correlations among all study variables.

Table  1.  Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations among Variables

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

According to Bartlett’s test, the matrix is not an identity matrix. The null hypothesis is rejected. The variables under analysis are correlated, thus factor analysis is justified. The Cumulative percentage is 61. 139. Four factors explain 61.139% of common variance.

Total Variance Explained

Besides the reversed item of supervisor developmental feedback, all of the variables had values higher than 0.4. It had no loading on any factor that made weaker the correspondence between the structure of a set of indicators and the construct it measures.

RELIABILITY

Alpha Cronbachs for almost all of the measures were higher than .70. Removal of any item or set of items in any measure did not appreciably improve estimates of internal consistency. So, all the variables used in the research were internally consistent.  Separately measured they registered high alpha coefficients.

In the table below the alpha coefficients are presented for all of the variables.

A reversed item, supervisor developmental feedback, turned out to have slightly higher value than Alpha coefficient.  Nevertheless, a review of all of the scales together reveals that a high reliability was registered (.913).

GUIDE FOR TESTING THE METIATION EFFECTS  IN MULTIPLE REGRESSION

To test the mediating effect, multiple regression analysis was run to analyze the relationship among all of the variables by first regressing the dependent variable on the independent variable, then regressing the mediator on the independent   variable, and finally regressing the dependent on both the independent variable and the mediator variable ( Baron & Kenny, 1986).

According to the authors (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Judd & Kenny, 1981) there are four steps  in establishing that a variable (intrinsic motivation) mediates the relation between a predictor variable and the outcome variable :  by first step is shown that there is a significant relation between the predictor and outcome. The second step is to show that the predictor is related to the mediator. Third step is to show that the mediator (intrinsic motivation) is related to the outcome variable (innovative behavior). The final step is to show that the strengths of the relation between the predictor and the outcome is significantly reduced when the mediator is added to the model.

Hypothesis 1: Supervisor developmental feedback is positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Table 1 provides the results of analysis to test the meditational hypothesis. The unstandardized regression coefficient (.40) related to the effect of supervisor developmental feedback was significant. (p<.0001). Thus, the supervisor developmental feedback and the requirement for the mediation in step 1 was met.

As mentioned above mediator variable (intrinsic motivation) on predictor variable (supervisor developmental feedback) was regressed in step 2.

The unstandardized regression coefficient (B=.23) related with this relation also was significant at the p<.0001 level. Thus the condition for step 2was supported, supervisor developmental feedback was again significant.

Further, to test whether mediator variable (intrinsic motivation) was related to outcome variable (innovative behavior) we regressed the latter simultaneously on both (mediator) intrinsic motivation and predictor (supervisor developmental feedback).  The coefficient concerning the relation between intrinsic motivation and supervisor developmental feedback also was significant. (B= .28, p<.0001).  Thus, the condition for step 3 was again supported. (supervisor developmental feedback was significant).

This third regression equation also provided an estimate of the relation between predictor and outcome variable. If B equals zero in that relation, there is complete mediation. However, that path was .48 and still significant (p<.0001).

It means that the relationship between the predictor (supervisor developmental feedback) and the outcome variable (innovative behavior) is partially mediated by intrinsic motivation (B is greater than zero). Consequently, the relationship between predictor and outcome variables is significantly smaller.

To summarize, the analysis showed that intrinsic motivation has a mediating role between the independent (supervisor developmental feedback) and dependent variable (innovative behavior).

It has weak correlation with supervisor developmental feedback (.28), thus could maintain its mediating role in that relation. At the same time, supervisor developmental feedback and intrinsic motivation both registered good correlation coefficients with innovative behavior: .43 and .52 respectively.

Hypothesis 2:  Creative self-efficacy will be positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation

Table 2

Table 2 provides the results of analysis:

The unstandardized regression coefficient (B=.41) associated with the effect of creative self-efficacy was significant (p<.0001). Thus, creative self efficacy was significant and the requirement for the mediation in step 1 was met.

In the regression of the mediator (intrinsic motivation) on predictor (creative self-efficacy) in step 2 the unstandardized regression coefficient (B = .68) was also significant at the p<.0001 level, thus, the condition for step 2was met, creative self-efficacy was significant.

By regressing innovative behavior simultaneously on both mediator (intrinsic motivation) and the predictor (creative self-efficacy) we tasted whether intrinsic motivation was related to innovative behavior.  The regression coefficient associated with relation between intrinsic motivation and innovative behavior was significant (B=.57, p<.000 ) Thus, the condition for the step 3 was significant. However in the third step creative self-efficacy was insignificant (B=.02; p = .827 >.05).

Due to high correlation with intrinsic motivation (.711), creative self-efficacy got excluded from the model, since regression allows the variables that are in weak correlation with each other and have strong predictive power on the outcome variable.

In this case regression made insignificant the variable that had less (.37) predictive power on innovative behavior than the other variable, intrinsic motivation (.52).   The strong power of self-efficacy is expressed by the high correlation with intrinsic motivation that, in its turn, shows high predictive value on outcome variable: innovative behavior.

 

© Leadership, Creativity & Innovation in Enterprises – Dott.ssa Nune Margaryan

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Research section

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Researsh section

 

Other researchers have used innovation as a more inclusive two-component concept encompassing both idea generation and application (e.g., West, 2002).  In this research, however, innovative behavior as a product of creativity was investigated. Componental theory (Amabile, 1988) and the Interactionist theory of Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1993) indicate that leadership style, creativity relevant skills, intrinsic motivation, and domain knowledge are critical for organizational creativity.

 

Consistent with the literature, creativity has been shown to occur at multiple levels, such as  individual, organizational, group, and environmental (Oldham & Cummings, 1996; Scott & Bruce, 1994; Tierney, Farmer & Graen, 1999). 

 

However, few studies have sought to examine the predictive side of mediating factors increativity leading relationships by considering predictive variables of different levels such as organizational and individual. 

 

Examinations of the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in measuring innovative behavior are virtually nonexistent. Supervisor developmental feedback, creative self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation expounded in our research are separately assessed on the outcome side: creativity and innovative behavior (Amabile, 1998; Bandura, 1986; Deci & Ryan, 1978). We did include intrinsic motivation as a mediator variable in two hypotheses to test what kind of role it plays when organizational and individual variables are combined.  

 

In view of the role of leadership in organizational innovation, we referred to the previous research (Amabile, 1998; Jung, 2001; Mumford & Gustafson, 1988). The style of leadership examined in this study is a set of behaviors that have come to be labeled “supervisor developmental feedback.’’  Its essence appears to repeat the behavioral set denoted by transformational leadership.

More specifically, supervisor developmental feedback refers to the extent to which supervisors provide their employees with helpful and valuable information so that employees can learn, develop, and make improvements in the performance of their jobs. 

 

When supervisors provide developmental feedback, they are essentially engaging in a practice that is informational in nature: They provide employees with behaviorally relevant information that may lead to the improvement of their performance in the future in the absence of pressure for a particular outcome (Zhou, 2003).

Many theories describe how intrinsic motivation benefits creativity (Amabile et al., 1996). Intrinsic motivation was initially introduced by Amabile (1986) as one of the very important components for creativity and innovation.

It is what makes people become passionate in the task: It makes them feel personally involved in and excited about their work. They experience a deep level of enjoyment in the domain. 

 

To this extent, we predicted that employees’ intrinsic motivation can be increased both on the organizational and individual level. Leadership – more specifically, supervisor developmental feedback – is assumed to have a significant role in increasing employees’ intrinsic motivation, thus leading to innovative behavior.  

 

With this notion we suggested the following:

Hypothesis1. Supervisor developmental feedback is positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

 

The concept of self-efficacy holds much promise for understanding creative action in organizational settings.  Creative self- efficacy was recognized by Bandura (1986) as a strong source in generating creative aspiration levels. It is a necessary condition for creative productivity and the discovery of ‘’new knowledge.’’  According to the theory, self-efficacy influences the motivation and ability of individuals to engage in specific behavior (Bandura, 1977), as well as the pursuit of certain tasks (Bandura, 1986). 

 

Creative self-efficacy will boost the initiative of individuals to behave innovatively. In line with this theoretical background, we suggested that employees’ creative self-efficacy – the belief employees have in their creative capacity and how this affects their personal involvement and enjoyment of the domain – will create a wholesome foundation for innovative behavior. Creative capacity would be strong source in fostering individuals’ intrinsic motivation and lead them to innovative behavior. Focusing on the mediating role of employees’ intrinsic motivation, we expected the employees to have stronger creative initiatives that result in innovative behavior.  

 

In accord with this, we suggested the following:

Hypothesis 2:  Creative self-efficacy will be positively related to innovative behavior through the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Motivation and creativity

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: 

 

RESEARCH VARIABLES 

 

While identifying different factors related to creativity, researchers integrated a number of theories from social psychology to provide well-grounded knowledge to explain the environment in which employees are likely to behave creatively (Tierney, Farmer & Grean, 1999; Zhou, 2003; Scott & Bruce, 1994).  

 

As mentioned above in this work the focus was on those theoretical perspectives that relate to the factors that we investigate: (1) self-efficacy, (2) supervisor developmental feedback, and (3) intrinsic motivation.

 

 

1) CREATIVE SELF-EFFICACY.

 

According to Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy beliefs are defined as ‘’people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performance, are all of the thoughts that affect human functioning and standing atthe very core of social cognitive theory’’ (Bandura, 1986). Accordingly, unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties.

As Bandura (1997) cited, strong self-efficacy as a necessary condition for creative productivity and the discovery of ‘’new knowledge .‘’ Because  self-efficacy views influence the motivation and ability to engage in specific behavior (Bandura, 1977), as well as the pursuit of certain tasks (Bandura, 1986).

Self-efficacy beliefs, being at a very core of human activities, are considered a strong source of personal initiative and persistence (reference) and closely related to the employees’ aim to develop and achieve a desired task results (Amabile, 1988). Those beliefs of self-efficacy help determine how much effort people will expend on a performance, how long they will persevere when confronting obstacles, and how resilient they will be in the face of adverse situations. Accordingly, people with a strong sense of personal competence approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. Such people have greater intrinsic interest and deep engrossments in activities, set themselves challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them, and heighten and sustain their efforts in the face of failure.  They recover more quickly their sense of efficacy after failures or setbacks, and attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills that are acquirable (Bandura,1986). 

In a work environment a high sense of self-efficacy can be crucial for performance: it may have the same mechanisms: the higher the sense of efficacy of employee, the grater the effort and persistence to achieve the results. Thus, we argue that in the work environment employees’ self efficacy beliefs will play a significant role on pursuing desired outcomes. Employees with high level of self-efficacy will show more interest and perseverance on reaching the designated level of performance. Apparently, it will be one of the main requisites to develop creative performance. 

 

2) MOTIVATION  

 

EARLY VIEWS OF MOTIVATION AND CREATIVITY

 

The first theories to address the nature of the motivation underlying creativity came primarily from the psychodynamic tradition. Freud suggested that similar to the role that play serves for children, creative activity allows adults to work through conflict and provides the opportunity to imbue a fantasy world with emotional content. Other psychodynamic theorists have suggested that creativity may be motivated by the need to atone for unconscious aggressive or destructive impulses (e.g. Fairbain, 1938; Segal, Shape, 1930, 1950; Stokes, 1963) in Sternberg, (1999, p. 297).

A number of early expressions of these ideas about motivation were made by theorists who argued that creativity could occur only in the absence of external regulation. One of the first of these was Carl Rogers (1954), who believed that creativity was motivated by people’s self-actualizing tendencies, the drive to fulfill their potential. Rogers thought that the drive for self-actualization was present in everyone, but in order for it to be fully expressed in creative achievement, certain conditions must hold. In particular, Rogers stressed that creativity must occur in a context ofself-evaluation rather than being driven by a concern with being evaluated by others. Thus, creative individuals must value their own internal assessment of their work, a condition that is most likely to emerge in an environment characterized by the absence of external evaluation and the presence of freedom. The importance of freedom from control was also noted by Kostler (1964), who believed such freedom necessary for a person to achieve the unconscious, playful forms of thought that he argued produced creative insights.    

 

Humanistic ideas similar to Rogers’s were articulated by Maslow (1943, 1959, 1968). He emphasized that self- actualized creativity  was not motivated by  a desire for achievement and was also not the result of ‘’working through repressive control of forbidden impulses and wishes’’ ((1968, p.144) as the psychodynamic tradition argued.

Instead, he described self- actualized creativity as the spontaneous expression of the person whose more basic needs have been satisfied.  He believed that people who possess a special talent may be creative without having self-actualization. 

Still other early theorists contended that a crucial part of creativity was a deep love for and enjoyment of the tasks undertaken (Bruner, 1962; Henle, 1962, Torrance, 1962; see also Torrance, 1995) in Sternberg, (1999, p. 297).  Golann (1962) recognized the importance of deep involvement with the task when he described creativity as motivated by a desire to interact fully with the environment in order to achieve one’s ‘’fullest perceptual, cognitive, and expressive potentials’’ (p.509).       

 

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND CREATIVITY

 

For almost five decades two distinct types of motivation have been of interest to researchers in psychology: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000, Vallerand, 1997).  

Intrinsic motivation was studied as early as the 1950s, but the construct became prominent due to the work by Deci (1975) and Deci and Ryan (1985). 

These authors first offered Self-Determination theory. At the heart of their theory is the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to the motivational state in which an individual is attracted in his work in itself, not due to any external outcomes that might result from task engagement (Deci & Ryan, 1985). While, motivations deriving from external pressures or constraints are considered to be extrinsic motivation. Over five decades of research in this area 

suggests that the quality of task experience and performance can be very different when one is behaving for intrinsic versus extrinsic reasons (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

More recently, Dewett (2007) has related intrinsic motivation to creativity According to this author intrinsic motivation would be conductive to creativity, while, controlling extrinsic motivation is detrimental to creativity, but informational or enabling extrinsic motivation can be conductive, particularly if initial levels of intrinsic motivation are high.

Amabile and Woodman (1988;1993) also recognized intrinsic motivation as a core characteristics for employee’ creativity. It is so vital to creativity that Amabile developed the ‘’Intrinsic motivation Principle of Creativity".

She notes that a necessary component of intrinsic motivation is the individual’s orientation or level of enthusiasm for the activity, because it affects an employee’s decision to initiate and sustain creative effort (Amabile, 1988).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Two perspectives of creativity

Leadership, Creativity & Innovation: Two perspectives of creativity

 

Two relevant studies on creativity and innovation in business environment are referred. Amabile’s (1988) componental model of creativity and Woodman’s and Schoenfeldt (1993) interactionist perspective.
Amabile’s (1988, 1999) componental model of creativity proposes that there are three key components of creativity: domain-relevant skills, creativity relevant processes, and task motivation (table 1). Domain relevant skills include factual knowledge and expertise in a given domain.  These skills can be affected by formal and informal education and training, as well as individual’s perceptual, cognitive and motor abilities. The second component was creativity-relevant skills that recently changed to creativity relevant processes. This component includes explicit or tacit knowledge concerning strategies for producing creative ideas, appropriate cognitive styles, and work styles for creative-idea production. The last component, task motivation, refers to individuals’ attitudes toward a task and their perceptions of their own motivation for working on the task. Motivation can be either intrinsic (i.e., arising from individual’s interest, involvement, curiosity, or satisfaction) or extrinsic (i.e., arising from sources outside of the task itself) in nature (Amabile, 1988).

 

 

 The interactionist perspective of organizational creativity proposed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt, ( 1993) is premised on the idea that creativity is an individual level phenomenon that is affected by both situational and dispositional factors.
The authors stress that it is the interaction of an individual’s disposition and contextual factors in the work environment that fully predicts creative performance. Furthermore, the interactionist model stresses influences across levels of analysis.
The authors argue that cross-level influences are critical in identifying and understanding individual, group and organizational factors that can facilitate creative behavior. Specifically, Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1993) describe creative performance in organizations as a function of a number of individual, group and organizational characteristics that interact in affecting whether creativity occurs. For individual characteristics they discuss how cognitive abilities, style, personality, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge are important.
For group characteristics, the focus is on norms, cohesiveness, size, roles diversity, task and problem – solving approaches. The organizational characteristics discussed are culture, resources, rewards, strategy, structure and technology. From the perspective of the interactionist model, creative persons, groups, and organizations are inputs that are transformed  by the creative process and situation, with the potential  outcome of this  transformation leading to a creative product or performance. (Figure 2).

 

Works by Amabile, (1988) Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1993) provide a general framework that describes a number of relevant factors that can both enhance and suppress employee creativity. Although, those factors are not defined as specific contextual factors, but rather they presented a ground for suggesting why the context in which employees work is important for their creativity West & Farr (1996).
Thus, what is common for those two conceptual frameworks is the importance given to social and contextual influences for employee creativity. The concept is illustrated in the following design. ( Figure 3).